# Help!

### Cheatsheets

Use cheatsheets to refresh your memory and find new functions or plots.

• In RStudio go to Help > Cheatsheets
• Data Transformation - Helpful functions for cleaning and arranging your data.
• Data Visualization - Great reference for all your ggplot’ing options.

From within R

### Find new packages and functions

• Search packages in R with CRANsearcher
• ROpenSci has packages and data for all types of environmental and “scientific” work.
• For water the USGS shares water quality focused packages on GitHub.

Books

Searching online

• Google: include r or rstats + "the question"
• Search or post on stackoverflow.com + the [r] tag

Inside R

• Get function help and package info in R with ?arrange() or help(dplyr)

E-mail

## Troubleshooting

These are a few of the things we personally forget to do all the time and cause 90% of our errors. They’re good first checks if R starts throwing errors or behaving strangely.

• Make sure all parentheses are balanced so that every opening ( has a corresponding closing ).
• R doesn’t love \ backward slashes like Windows, check that they didn’t sneak into your expression somewhere. When in doubt use the / forward slash.
• If you think you have completed typing your code, and instead of seeing the > command prompt at the console you see the + character instead. That’s a good sign that either R is still thinking very-very hard, or it is still waiting for you to complete your expression. You can hit Esc or Ctrl-C to force your way back to the console and try typing your code again.

• R is very picking about spelling. So are meteorologists when talking about lighting storms.

• In ggplot we build up plots one piece at a time by adding expressions to one another with the + character. When doing this, make sure the + goes at the end of each line, and not the beginning.

Put the + sign here to make ggplot happy:

ggplot(data = mpg, aes(x = displ, y = hwy)) +
geom_point()

Put it on the next line to make ggplot sad:

ggplot(data = mpg, aes(x = displ, y = hwy))
+ geom_point()

## Error messages

Not all error messages are helpful or easy to interpret, but they do seem to be getting better in many R packages. When googling an error message it can help to put the entire message in quotes. For the error below we would search for "Error in fit[5, 100, ] : subscript out of bounds".